Civil Engineering

Program Overview

The Department of Civil and Mineral Engineering offers graduate programs leading to the Master of Applied Science (MASc), the Master of Engineering (MEng), and the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD). Qualified students are accepted for advanced studies in one of the following fields: Building Engineering, Environmental Engineering, Geomechanics, Structural Engineering, and Transportation Engineering.

Students registered in a graduate degree program involving research are required to participate in the non-credit seminar course JDE 1000H Ethics in Research during their first or second session of registration.

The department also offers a graduate program in Cities Engineering and Management leading to the Master of Engineering in Cities Engineering and Management (MEngCEM).

Students may also be interested in combined degree programs:


Quick Facts

Domestic International
Application payment deadline MASc, PhD:

1-Feb-2021

MEng:

1-Jun-2021

MASc, PhD:

1-Feb-2021

MEng:

1-Apr-2021

Supporting documents deadline MASc, PhD:

10-Feb-2021

MEng:

10-Jun-2021

MASc, PhD:

10-Feb-2021

MEng:

15-Apr-2021

Minimum admission average MASc, MEng:

Mid-B in final year of bachelor’s

PhD:

B+ average in Master’s

MASc, MEng:

Mid-B in final year of bachelor’s

PhD:

B+ average in Master’s

Direct entry option from bachelor's to PhD? PhD:

Yes (minimum A-minus average in bachelor’s degree)

PhD:

Yes (minimum A-minus average in bachelor’s degree)

Is a supervisor identified before or after admission? MASc, PhD:

Before

MASc, PhD:

Before

Is a supervisor assigned by the graduate unit or secured by the applicant? MASc, PhD:

Grad Unit

MASc, PhD:

Grad Unit

Program length (full-time only) MASc:

6 sessions

MEng:

3 sessions

PhD:

4 years; 5 years if entering directly from bachelor’s

MASc:

6 sessions

MEng:

3 sessions

PhD:

4 years; 5 years if entering directly from bachelor’s


Master of Applied Science

Program Description

The MASc program includes a foundational base of graduate courses followed by a research thesis. Many research projects involve industrial partnerships and networking opportunities, project management experience, and collaboration with leading experts.

Minimum Admission Requirements

  • Applicants are admitted under the General Regulations of the School of Graduate Studies. Applicants must also satisfy the Department of Civil Engineering's additional admission requirements stated below.

  • A completed undergraduate degree equivalent to a four-year University of Toronto program with a minimum final-year grade point average (GPA) of a mid B (3.0 out of 4.0, or 75%). Required grades must be achieved in each of the final two years of undergraduate study. Competitive admission averages are typically near or above 80% (A–).

  • Applicants whose primary language is not English and who graduated from a university where the language of instruction and examination was not English must demonstrate proficiency in English. See General Regulations section 4.3 for requirements.

  • Students who do not possess an undergraduate degree in civil engineering may be required to take more than the usual time and number of courses.

Program Requirements

  • Each student, in consultation with a staff member at the beginning of the program, will establish the distribution of time between coursework and thesis or design project.

  • Coursework. Normally, students must complete a minimum of 2.5 full-course equivalents (FCEs) (five half courses).

  • Research thesis.

  • Students must participate in the non-credit seminar course JDE1000H Ethics in Research during their first or second session of registration.

  • In addition to the core research area, students have the option of completing an emphasis in Sustainable Energy as part of their degree program. Please see details in the Civil Engineering MASc, MEng, PhD Emphases section.

Program Length

6 sessions full-time (typical registration sequence: F/W/S/F/W/S)

Time Limit

3 years full-time

Master of Engineering

Program Description

The MEng program is course based and intended to provide continuing and advanced education for recent graduates and civil engineers in professional practice. The program can be taken on a full-time, extended full-time, or part-time basis.

 

Full-Time Option

Minimum Admission Requirements

  • Applicants are admitted under the General Regulations of the School of Graduate Studies. Applicants must also satisfy the Department of Civil Engineering's additional admission requirements stated below.

  • A completed undergraduate degree equivalent to a four-year University of Toronto program with a minimum final-year grade point average (GPA) of a mid-B (3.0 out of 4.0 or 75%). Required grades must be achieved in each of the final two years of undergraduate study.

  • Applicants whose primary language is not English and who graduated from a university where the language of instruction and examination was not English must demonstrate proficiency in English. See General Regulations section 4.3 for requirements.

  • Students who do not possess an undergraduate degree in civil engineering may be required to take more than the usual time and number of courses.

Program Requirements

  • Each student, in consultation with a staff member at the beginning of the program, will establish the distribution of time between coursework and thesis or design project.

  • Coursework. Normally, students must complete 5.0 full-course equivalents (FCEs) (10 half courses). Up to two half courses (1.0 FCE) may be replaced by a research/design project.

  • Students have the option of completing an emphasis in Advanced Water Technologies; Analytics; Building Science; Concrete; Construction Management; Engineering and Globalization; Entrepreneurship, Leadership, Innovation and Technology in Engineering (ELITE); Environmental Engineering; Forensic Engineering; Geomechanics; Structural Engineering; Sustainable Energy; Sustainable Urban Systems; or Transportation Engineering and Planning as part of their degree program. Please see details in the Civil Engineering MASc, MEng, PhD Emphases section.

Program Length

3 sessions (typical registration sequence: F/W/S)

Time Limit

3 years

 

Extended Full-Time Option

Minimum Admission Requirements

  • Applicants are admitted under the General Regulations of the School of Graduate Studies. Applicants must also satisfy the Department of Civil Engineering's additional admission requirements stated below.

  • A completed undergraduate degree equivalent to a four-year University of Toronto program with a minimum final-year grade point average (GPA) of a mid-B (3.0 out of 4.0 or 75%). Required grades must be achieved in each of the final two years of undergraduate study.

  • Applicants whose primary language is not English and who graduated from a university where the language of instruction and examination was not English must demonstrate proficiency in English. See General Regulations section 4.3 for requirements.

  • Students who do not possess an undergraduate degree in civil engineering may be required to take more than the usual time and number of courses.

Program Requirements

  • Each student, in consultation with a staff member at the beginning of the program, will establish the distribution of time between coursework and thesis or design project.

  • Coursework. Normally, students must complete 5.0 full-course equivalents (FCEs) (10 half courses). Up to two half courses (1.0 FCE) may be replaced by a research/design project.

  • Students are expected to complete the requirements in six sessions (two years) and are limited to six half courses per year and three half courses per session.

  • Students have the option of completing an emphasis in Advanced Water Technologies; Analytics; Building Science; Concrete; Construction Management; Engineering and Globalization; Entrepreneurship, Leadership, Innovation and Technology in Engineering (ELITE); Environmental Engineering; Forensic Engineering; Geomechanics; Structural Engineering; Sustainable Energy; Sustainable Urban Systems; or Transportation Engineering and Planning as part of their degree program. Please see details in the Civil Engineering MASc, MEng, PhD Emphases section.

Program Length

6 sessions extended full-time (typical registration sequence: F/W/S/F/W/S)

Time Limit

3 years

 

Part-Time Option

Minimum Admission Requirements

  • Applicants are admitted under the General Regulations of the School of Graduate Studies. Applicants must also satisfy the Department of Civil Engineering's additional admission requirements stated below.

  • A completed undergraduate degree equivalent to a four-year University of Toronto program with a minimum final-year grade point average (GPA) of a mid-B (3.0 out of 4.0 or 75%). Required grades must be achieved in each of the final two years of undergraduate study.

  • Applicants whose primary language is not English and who graduated from a university where the language of instruction and examination was not English must demonstrate proficiency in English. See General Regulations section 4.3 for requirements.

  • Students who do not possess an undergraduate degree in civil engineering may be required to take more than the usual time and number of courses.

Program Requirements

  • Each student, in consultation with a staff member at the beginning of the program, will establish the distribution of time between coursework and thesis or design project.

  • Coursework. Normally, students must complete 5.0 full-course equivalents (FCEs) (10 half courses). Up to two half courses (1.0 FCE) may be replaced by a research/design project.

  • Students are limited to four half courses per year and two half courses per session. Students normally complete the requirements in nine sessions.

  • Students have the option of completing an emphasis in Advanced Water Technologies; Analytics; Building Science; Concrete; Construction Management; Engineering and Globalization; Entrepreneurship, Leadership, Innovation and Technology in Engineering (ELITE); Environmental Engineering; Forensic Engineering; Geomechanics; Structural Engineering; Sustainable Energy; Sustainable Urban Systems; or Transportation Engineering and Planning as part of their degree program. Please see details in the Civil Engineering MASc, MEng, PhD Emphases section.

Program Length

9 sessions

Time Limit

6 years

Doctor of Philosophy

Program Description

The PhD program is designed for outstanding individuals interested in a rewarding career in fundamental or applied research. This program involves advanced courses and an intensive research program culminating in a thesis.

Applicants may enter the PhD program via one of three routes: 1) following completion of an MASc degree in engineering, mathematics, physics, or chemistry; 2) transfer from the University of Toronto MASc program; 3) direct entry following completion of a bachelor’s degree.

Minimum Admission Requirements

  • Applicants are admitted under the General Regulations of the School of Graduate Studies. Applicants must also satisfy the Department of Civil Engineering's additional admission requirements stated below.

  • A completed undergraduate degree equivalent to a four-year University of Toronto program with a minimum final-year grade point average (GPA) of B+ (3.3 out of 4.0 or 78%). Required grades must be achieved in each of the final two years of undergraduate study. Competitive admission averages are typically near or above 80% (A–).

  • Applicants whose primary language is not English and who graduated from a university where the language of instruction and examination was not English must demonstrate proficiency in English. See General Regulations section 4.3 for requirements.

  • Applicants must satisfy the department of the ability to undertake advanced research.

  • Admission directly from a bachelor's degree is permitted in exceptional cases.

  • If a student transfers from a master's degree program to a PhD program, courses taken during the master's program may be applied to the PhD program.

Program Requirements

  • Students with an MASc degree (or equivalent in the same area of study) must complete a minimum of 2.0 full-course equivalents (FCEs) (four half courses).

  • Students with an MEng degree must complete a minimum of 4.5 FCEs (nine half courses). Up to 3.0 FCEs (six graduate half courses) may be used from the MEng program towards the PhD course requirements.

  • Students enrolled in the MASc degree program who transfer to the PhD program must complete a total of 4.5 full-course equivalents (FCEs) (nine half courses).

  • For direct-entry students, more FCEs may be required depending on the student's background preparation. It is normally expected that at least one of the half courses will be taken outside of the student's principal area of research.

  • Comprehensive examination after completing most of the coursework and preferably within one year after first enrolment in the PhD program. This examination consists of a four- to five-day take-home written examination, followed approximately a week later by an oral examination. The examination is administered by a Comprehensive Examination Committee created and supervised by the department's Graduate Studies Committee.

  • Residence. Students normally must spend at least two academic years of their program on campus on a full-time basis.

  • The academic program must be approved by the department's Graduate Studies Committee during the student's first session.

  • Students must participate in the non-credit seminar course JDE1000H Ethics in Research during their first or second session of registration.

  • Students have the option of completing an emphasis in Sustainable Energy as part of their degree program. Please see details in the Civil Engineering MASc, MEng, PhD Emphases section.

Program Length

4 years full-time; 5 years transfer-from-master's; 5 years direct-entry

Time Limit

6 years full-time; 7 years transfer-from-master's; 7 years direct-entry

Emphasis: Advanced Water Technologies (MEng only)

MEng students must successfully complete a total of 2.0 full-course equivalents (FCEs) (four half courses). This includes at least one course (0.5 FCE) selected from the core course list. The remaining courses must be selected from the elective course list.

  • Core courses (complete at least one):

    • CHE1150H Industrial Water Technology

    • CIV1308H Physical and Chemical Treatment Processes

    • CIV1309H Biological Treatment Processes

    • CIV1311H Advanced and Sustainable Drinking Water Treatment

  • Elective courses (complete remaining courses):

    • CHE565H Aqueous Process Engineering

    • CHE1213H Corrosion

    • CHE1430H Hydrometallurgy Theory and Practice

    • CIV541H Environmental Biotechnology

    • CIV549H Groundwater Flow and Contamination

    • CIV550H Water Resources Engineering

    • CIV1303H Water Resources Systems Modeling

    • CIV1319H Chemistry and Analysis of Water and Wastes

    • CIV1330H Water, Sanitation, Hygiene, and Global Health

    • CIV1399H Special Studies in Civil Engineering (for example, Water Sanitation and Hygiene; Treatment Wetlands; the topic is subject to obtaining approval from the student's graduate unit)

    • CIV1499H Special Studies in Civil Engineering (for example, Fundamentals of Acid Mine Drainage; the topic is subject to obtaining approval from the student's graduate unit).

    • JCC1313H Environmental Microbiology

    • JNC2503H Environmental Pathways

    • MIE1807H Principles of Measurements

    • STA1004H Introduction to Experimental Design.

Enrolment Contact

Enrolment in the emphasis is permitted at any time during the MEng program. After students are admitted to the normal MEng program, students may contact Prof. Ron Hofmann, (416) 946-7508.

Upon successful completion of the emphasis requirements and the successful completion of the MEng degree requirements, students will receive a transcript notation from the Faculty Graduate Studies office (subject to Prof. Hofmann’s recommendation).

 

Emphasis: Analytics (MEng only)

To be admitted to the emphasis in Analytics, MEng students must first successfully complete a prerequisite course APS1070H (0.5 full-course equivalent [FCE]).

Subsequently, to earn the emphasis, students must successfully complete four additional half courses (2.0 FCEs) from the list of core courses or elective courses. These must include at least one core course; the remaining courses must be selected from the list of elective courses.

Students must have completed the prerequisite course APS1070H before taking any of the core courses.

Prerequisite Course

APS1070H Foundations of Data Analytics and Machine Learning

Core Courses

CHE1147H Data Mining in Engineering
ECE1513H Introduction to Machine Learning (exclusions: CSC411H, CSC2515H, ECE421H, ECE521H, ECE1504H)
MIE1624H Introduction to Data Science and Analytics
MSE1065H Application of Artificial Intelligence in Materials Design (exclusion: MSE1063H)

Elective Courses

APS502H, APS1005H, APS1017H, APS1022H, APS1040H, APS1050H, APS1051H, APS1052H, APS1053H, APS1080H,
CHE507H, CHE1108H, CHE1148H, CHE1434H,
CIV1504H, CIV1506H, CIV1507H, CIV1532H, CIV1538H
ECE537H, ECE1504H (exclusions: CSC411H, CSC2515H, ECE421H, ECE521H, ECE1513H), ECE1505H, ECE1510H, ECE1657H, ECE1778H, ECE1779H
MIE562H, MIE1413H, MIE1501H, MIE1512H, MIE1513H, MIE1517H, MIE1620H, MIE1621H, MIE1622H, MIE1623H, MIE1628H, MIE1653H, MIE1721H, MIE1723H, MIE1727H
MSE1063H (exclusion: MSE1065H).

 

Emphasis: Building Science (MEng only)

MEng students must successfully complete at least six half courses (3.0 full-course equivalents [FCEs]) with a combination of core and elective courses as detailed below. One or two of the optional courses may be a one-session (CIV1001H) or two-session (CIV1002Y) project (not listed below). Other courses may be considered but will require approval of the Building Science emphasis coordinator.

Core Courses (take at least four):

CIV575H Building Science
CIV576H Sustainable Buildings
CIV578H Design of Building Enclosures
CIV1282H Case Studies in Building Science
CIV1320H Indoor Air Quality
MIE507H HVAC Fundamentals.

Elective Courses (others can be approved by the emphasis coordinator):

CIV514H, CIV536H, CIV577H, CIV1279H, CIV1299H,
MIE515H, MIE1240H.

 

Emphasis: Concrete (MEng only)

MEng students must successfully complete six of the following technical courses (3.0 full-course equivalents [FCEs], one or two of which may be a one-session (CIV1001H) or two-session (CIV1002Y) project (not listed below). Other courses may be considered but will require approval of the Concrete emphasis coordinator.

CIV514H, CIV517H, CIV1201H, CIV1250H, CIV1252H, CIV1260H, CIV1262H, CIV1275H, CIV1504H.

 

Emphasis: Construction Management (MEng only)

MEng students must successfully complete six of the following technical courses (3.0 full-course equivalents [FCEs], one or two of which may be a one-session (CIV1001H) or two-session (CIV1002Y) project (not listed below). Other courses may be considered but will require approval of the Construction Management emphasis coordinator.

APS1001H, APS1004H, APS1005H, APS1017H,
CIV1279H, CIV1281H, CIV1299H, CIV1307H, CIV1504H,
MIE562H, MIE1413H.

 

Emphasis: Engineering and Globalization (MEng only)

MEng students must successfully complete four half courses (2.0 full-course equivalents [FCEs]) from the following lists, with at least two half courses (or one full course) chosen from Group A.

Group A

APS510H, APS530H, APS1420H, JCR1000Y (full-year course).

Group B

APS1015H, APS1020H, APS1024H, CHL5700H, CIV1399H, JMG2020H.

Note: Students who choose to pursue an MEng project in their home department that aligns with the Centre for Global Engineering (CGEN)'s disciplinary focus, as deemed by the CGEN Director, may count the project as one required Group B course.

Students who complete the requirements of the emphasis in Engineering and Globalization and wish to obtain a notation on their transcript should contact the Faculty Graduate Studies office.

 

Emphasis: Entrepreneurship, Leadership, Innovation and Technology in Engineering (ELITE) (MEng only)

MEng students must successfully complete any four of the following courses (2.0 full-course equivalents [FCEs]):

Leadership

TEP1010H, TEP1011H, TEP1026H, TEP1027H, TEP1029H, TEP1030H, TEP1501H, TEP1502H, TEP1601H

Entrepreneurship and Innovation

APS1012H, APS1013H, APS1015H, APS1023H, APS1033H, APS1035H, APS1036H, APS1041H, APS1061H, APS1088H

Finance and Management

AER1601H, APS502H, APS1001H, APS1004H, APS1005H, APS1009H, APS1016H, APS1017H, APS1020H, APS1022H, APS1028H, APS1032H, APS1038H, APS1039H, APS1040H, APS1043H, APS1049H, APS1050H, APS1051H, APS1052H

Engineering and Society

APS510H, APS1018H, APS1024H, APS1025H, APS1031H, APS1034H, APS1101H, APS1420H.

 

Emphasis: Environmental Engineering (MEng only)

MEng students must successfully complete six of the following technical courses (3.0 full-course equivalents [FCEs], one or two of which may be a one-session (CIV1001H) or two-session (CIV1002Y) project (not listed below). Other courses may be considered but will require approval of the Environmental Engineering emphasis coordinator.

CHE1134H, CHE1150H, CHE1180H, CHE1431H, CHE1432H,
CHL5903H,
CIV541H, CIV549H, CIV550H, CIV577H, CIV1303H, CIV1307H, CIV1308H, CIV1311H, CIV1319H, CIV1320H, CIV1399H,
ENV1001H, ENV1701H,
JCC1313H,
JNC2503H,
MIE1240H.

 

Emphasis: Forensic Engineering (MEng only)

MEng students must successfully complete four courses (one core course and three elective courses) from the list below.

Core Course

MSE1031H Forensic Engineering.

Elective Courses

AER1604H,
APS1034H, APS1039H, APS1040H, APS1101H,
BME1480H, BME1800H, BME1801H, BME1802H,
CHE561H, CHE568H, CHE1213H, CHE1431H, CHE1432H, CHE1434H, CHE1436H,
CIV510H, CIV518H, CIV1163H, CIV1171H, CIV1174H, CIV1190H, CIV1201H, CIV1279H, CIV1282H, CIV1422H, CIV1429H,
JMB1050H,
JNC2503H,
MIE507H, MIE533H, MIE566H, MIE1301H, MIE1303H, MIE1411H, MIE1414H, MIE1616H, MIE1708H, MIE1713H, MIE1714H, MIE1721H, MIE1723H, MIE1727H, MIE1804H,
MSE1015H, MSE1016H, MSE1022H, MSE1032H, MSE1067H.

 

Emphasis: Geomechanics (MEng only)

MEng students must successfully complete six of the following technical courses (3.0 full-course equivalents [FCEs], one or two of which may be a one-session (CIV1001H) or two-session (CIV1002Y) project (not listed below). Other courses may be considered but will require approval of the Geomechanics emphasis coordinator.

CIV523H, CIV1404H, CIV1419H, CIV1420H, CIV1429H, CIV1498H, CIV1499H,
MIN540H, MIN565H.

 

Emphasis: Structural Engineering (MEng only)

MEng students must successfully complete six of the following technical courses (3.0 full-course equivalents [FCEs], one or two of which may be a one-session (CIV1001H) or two-session (CIV1002Y) project (not listed below). Other courses may be considered but will require approval of the Structural Engineering emphasis coordinator.

CIV510H, CIV514H, CIV515H, CIV517H, CIV518H, CIV519H, CIV1163H, CIV1164H, CIV1167H, CIV1169H, CIV1171H, CIV1174H, CIV1175H, CIV1180H, CIV1361H.

 

Emphasis: Sustainable Energy (MASc, MEng, PhD)

MASc and PhD students must successfully complete:

  • At least three half courses (1.5 full-course equivalents [FCEs]) from either of the following lists below.

  • A thesis towards their degree on a topic related to sustainable energy. Topics must be approved by the steering committee of the Institute of Sustainable Energy. Contact: Mandeep Rayat.

MEng students must successfully complete:

  • Four half courses (2.0 FCEs) from either of the following lists below, including at least one core course (0.5 FCE).

Core Courses

APS1032H Introduction to Energy Project Management
MIE515H Alternative Energy Systems
MIE1120H Current Energy Infrastructure and Resources.

Elective Courses

AER507H, AER1304H, AER1315H, AER1415H,
CHE568H, CHE1053H, CHE1118H, CHE1123H, CHE1142H, CHE1143H,
CIV575H, CIV576H, CIV577H, CIV1303H, CIV1307H,
ECE533H, ECE1030H, ECE1055H, ECE1057H, ECE1059H, ECE1085H, ECE1086H, ECE1092H, ECE1094H, ECE1476H,
MIE516H, MIE517H, MIE1128H, MIE1129H, MIE1130H, MIE1240H, MIE1715H,
MSE1023H, MSE1028H, MSE1058H.

Students who complete the requirements of the emphasis in Sustainable Energy will receive a notation on their transcript from the Faculty Graduate Studies Office following a recommendation from the Institute of Sustainable Energy. Contact: Mandeep Rayat.

 

Emphasis: Sustainable Urban Systems (MEng only)

MEng students must successfully complete six of the following technical courses (3.0 full-course equivalents [FCEs], one or two of which may be a one-session (CIV1001H) or two-session (CIV1002Y) project (not listed below). Other courses may be considered but will require approval of the Sustainable Urban Systems emphasis coordinator.

APS510H, APS1024H, APS1025H,
CIV514H, CIV516H, CIV531H, CIV575H, CIV576H, CIV577H, CIV1201H, CIV1252H, CIV1280H, CIV1303H, CIV1307H, CIV1535H,
ECE1092H,
ENV1001H,
MIE515H, MIE1120H, MIE1240H, MIE1715H.

 

Emphasis: Transportation Engineering and Planning (MEng only)

MEng students must successfully complete six of the following technical courses (3.0 full-course equivalents [FCEs], one or two of which may be a one-session (CIV1001H) or two-session (CIV1002Y) project (not listed below). Other courses may be considered but will require approval of the Transportation Engineering and Planning emphasis coordinator.

CIV516H, CIV531H, CIV536H, CIV1307H, CIV1506H, CIV1508H, CIV1532H, CIV1535H, CIV1536H, CIV1538H.

 

Emphasis: Waterpower (MEng only)

See amendment made on September 13, 2021. 

MEng students must successfully complete four half courses (2.0 full-course equivalents [FCEs], including one core course. The remaining coursework may be taken from the following lists.

Core Course

APS1410H Waterpower Essentials (pending approval).

Group A (complete at least one)

APS1411H (prerequisite: APS1410H),
CIV550H.

Group B (complete at least one)

AER1410H,
APS1024H, APS1032H,
CIV514H, CIV523H, CIV580H, CIV1001H, CIV1163H, CIV1171H, CIV1252H, CIV1275H, CIV1279H, CIV1281H, CIV1303H, CIV1399H, CIV1420H,
CIV1XXXH Design of Hydro and Wind Electric Plants (pending approval)
ECE514H, ECE533H, ECE1049H, ECE1059H, ECE1093H, ECE1094H,
ENV1001H, ENV1701H, ENV1703H,
MIE1201H, MIE1207H, MIE1210H, MIE1222H, MIE1241H.

Seshu Iyengar

“Beyond the financial stability, being nominated for and receiving this award was an honour which gave me the confidence in my ability to be a graduate students; the Naylor Fellowship demonstrates a strong belief in the contributions Atlantic Canadians can make in academic research.”

Seshu Iyengar
PhD Student, Physics, David Naylor Fellow
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